How Germany Will Rely on Renewable Energy to Survive the Energy Crisis

Since the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, Germany has been hit hard by its extremely high dependence on Russian energy. In the face of energy shortages and high prices, Germany has had to accelerate the “priority” of renewable energy development.

On July 7, a package of energy bills, including amendments to the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG 2023), was passed in the last vote before the German Federal Parliament begins its summer recess. Habeck, who comes from the Green Party and is currently the federal deputy chancellor and economy minister, submitted four bills of more than 500 pages detailing plans for the development of renewable energy over the next decade or so, aiming to help Germany move away from fossil energy dependence and accelerate the development of green energy.

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Renewable energy development will triple in speed

At present, Germany’s renewable energy generation accounts for more than 40% of total electricity generation, with offshore and onshore wind, photovoltaic and biomass being the most significant sources of renewable electricity in Germany. Most of the provisions of the new bill will be implemented from 2023, which specifies specific installed capacity targets: onshore wind power capacity from 69 GW in 2024 to 160 GW in 2040; photovoltaic systems from 88 GW in 2024 to 400 GW in 2040; cumulative onshore wind, solar and biomass power generation will reach 568.4 GW in 2040 .
Germany is committed to the development of photovoltaic systems, which will increase from 88 GW in 2024 to 400 GW in 2040, so what are the advantages of photovoltaic systems?

Components of a photovoltaic system

A typical solar photovoltaic power generation system consists of solar cell arrays (modules), cables, power electronic converters (inverters), energy storage devices (batteries), loads, i.e., users, etc., where the solar cell arrays and energy storage devices are the power supply system, the controller and power electronic converters are the control and protection system, and the loads are the system terminals.

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Advantages and disadvantages of photovoltaic systems

1) Reliable operation: normal power supply even under harsh environmental and climatic conditions.

2) Long life: the life of crystalline silicon modules is usually more than 25 years, and the life of amorphous silicon modules is usually more than 20 years. 

3) low maintenance costs: after completion, only a small number of staff is needed to regularly inspect and maintain the system, in comparison, conventional power plants have large maintenance costs.

4) natural energy: energy is inexhaustible, inexhaustible solar energy, no energy costs. 

5) No noise pollution: The whole system has no mechanical moving parts and does not produce noise.

6)Modularity: choose the system capacity according to the need, flexible and convenient installation, and very easy to expand the capacity.

7) Safety: No flammable materials in the system, high safety performance.

8) Independent power supply: Off-grid operation, independent power supply, not affected by the public grid. 

9) Distributed power generation: decentralized photovoltaic power plants can be built, reducing the impact and harm to the public grid. 

10) high altitude: In areas with high altitude and strong sunlight, the output power of the system can be increased. (Compared with photovoltaic power generation high altitude areas, due to low air pressure, diesel generator efficiency is reduced, the output power is reduced.)


1) high initial investment cost: Due to high initial investment, economic evaluation of individual systems and comparison of multiple options are required. If the initial investment is reduced and the cost of conventional fuel rises, the PV system will be more competitive. 

2)  unstable insolation: Weather has a great impact on the power output of any solar system. When the climate or site conditions change, the system design should also be changed.

3) the need for energy storage devices (independent system): photovoltaic power generation system when the night, no sunlight can not generate electricity, the need to increase the battery storage equipment, thereby increasing the size of the system, cost and maintenance workload.

4) efficiency needs to be improved: from the effectiveness of the investment, requires high efficiency of the use of photovoltaic system resources. Users must use high-efficiency load equipment.

5) the need for technical training: photovoltaic systems use a lot of people are not familiar with the new technology, therefore, the user in the operation of photovoltaic systems before, are required to undergo technical training

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